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architecture
Jul 174 min read

How to Design Parkings: Everything you need to know!

written by

Aishwarya Bomble

Parking design in architecture plays a pivotal role in shaping urban landscapes, influencing accessibility, user experience, safety, and overall aesthetic appeal. Architects and urban planners must carefully consider various factors to create parking facilities that are not only functional, but also enhance the overall urban environment.

Importance of Parking Design

Parking facilities are more than just places to park vehicles; they are integral components of urban infrastructure that impact traffic flow, pedestrian safety, and the efficiency of urban spaces. By integrating thoughtful design principles, architects can optimize space, improve traffic management, and contribute to sustainable urban development.

Types of Parking

90° Parking

Also known as perpendicular parking, this layout is common in many parking lots. It allows for efficient use of space but requires careful maneuvering during parking, which can be challenging in crowded areas.

How to Design Parkings - image 1

Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

Parallel Parking

Found on busy streets, this layout maximizes curb space but is notoriously difficult for drivers due to the precision required to park between two vehicles.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

45° Oblique Parking

Combines the efficiency of perpendicular and parallel parking by offering easier maneuverability without the need for sharp turns, accommodating more vehicles in less space.

How to Design Parkings - image 3Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

30° Oblique Parking

It occupies more space than other layouts but allows for efficient maneuverability and reduces congestion at entry and exit points.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

60° Oblique Parking

It strikes a balance between space efficiency and maneuverability, making it ideal for areas with limited space where easy ingress and egress are crucial.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

Benefits of Oblique Parking

Oblique parking layouts, such as 45° and 60°, are preferred in urban settings for their space-saving benefits and ease of maneuverability. These layouts help reduce traffic congestion within parking lots, minimize the risk of vehicle collisions, and enhance overall traffic flow.

Standard Dimensions and Regulations

Parking spaces are typically delineated by 12-20 mm wide yellow or white painted lines, ensuring clarity and adherence to parking regulations. Standards for turning radii are also crucial, ensuring that vehicles can safely navigate parking lots without causing damage to property or other vehicles.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

Turning Radius Considerations

Turning radius is a critical aspect of parking design that determines the space required for vehicles to safely enter and exit parking spaces. Designing appropriate turning radii ensures that vehicles can maneuver smoothly within parking facilities without the risk of collisions or damage to property.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

Design Considerations for Specially Abled Parking

Inclusive design principles dictate that parking facilities must cater to the needs of specially abled individuals. According to standards, surface parking must provide a minimum of two car bays near building entrances, with a maximum travel distance of 30 meters. Vertical signboards placed at a height of 2100 mm ensure visibility and accessibility for specially abled drivers.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

Mechanical Parking Solutions

Mechanical parking systems, such as car lifts, are innovative solutions to maximize parking capacity in dense urban areas where space is limited. These systems utilize vertical space efficiently, replacing traditional ramp-based designs and providing additional parking in public spaces.

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Credits - Aishwarya Bomble

Equivalent Car Spaces (ECS) and National Building Codes

Equivalent Car Spaces (ECS) are defined by national building codes to standardize parking requirements based on building occupancy and usage. These codes ensure that parking facilities meet minimum requirements for each type of development, promoting equitable access and efficient use of urban space.

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Integrating Sustainability in Parking Design

Modern parking facilities incorporate sustainable design practices to minimize environmental impact. Green parking initiatives include permeable pavement for stormwater management, integration of solar panels for energy efficiency, and landscaping with native plants to enhance biodiversity and mitigate urban heat island effects.

Conclusion

In conclusion, parking design in architecture encompasses a spectrum of considerations from layout efficiency and safety to sustainability and regulatory compliance. By embracing innovative solutions like oblique parking layouts, mechanical parking systems, and sustainable design practices, architects can create parking facilities that enhance urban livability and contribute to resilient city planning.

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Aishwarya Bomble

Aishwarya Bomble

An architect who is always on the go to share stories of her countless journeys.